Abstract: We assume that perception of music is based on identification and detachment of music structure. Music structure is determined by a range of characteristics: pitch and phonic characteristics, mode, timbre, tempo and dynamics, rhythm, meter, and general texture (means of music composition, which form the technical structure of music). Identification of music structures is conditioned by experience, on one hand, which includes all the cultural luggage of an individual – cultural environment, education, everyday experience, and by physiological mechanisms of auditory perception, processing, working memory and emotional regulation of the nervous system, on the other hand. Different physiological aspects of music perception have been studied in details. But there is still a big gap between physiological studies concerning particular mechanisms of auditory perception and music theory. How to compose music so that it would always hit the target, be remembered and understood? This is still a question for modern composers.